Database management is a system of managing information that a company needs to run its business operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to applications and users, modifying it as necessary and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing it from being damaged by unexpected failures. It is a component of the overall informational infrastructure of a business that assists in decision making as well as corporate growth and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed huge amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of reasons. From calculating inventory, to aiding complex financial accounting functions as well as human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that arrange data according to a specific pattern, such as one-to many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records and allow cross-references among tables. Each table is comprised of a set of fields, referred to as attributes, that represent facts about data entities. The most well-known type of database that is currently in use is a relational model, developed by E. F. «Ted» Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The concept is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It is also simpler to update data since it doesn’t require changing several databases.

Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases through different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is concerned with costs, scalability and other operational issues, such as the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a mix of external views based on different data models and may include virtual table that are computed using generic data in order to improve the performance.

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